All you need to know about enlarged prostate (BPH)

Prostate – a gland that produces the fluid to carry sperm during ejaculation. This gland is surrounded by the urethra, which is the tube to passes out urine out of the body.

Enlargement of prostate gland means the gland has increased by its size. It happens to almost all men as they get older.

Signs & symptoms

Most of the men with benign prostatic hyperplasia (BPH) do not show any symptoms. If symptoms are present, they are as follows:

  • Weak urine flow
  • Difficulty in starting urination
  • Dribbling of urine
  • Leaking of urine
  • A sense of not fully emptying the bladder
  • Frequent urination
  • A strong desire to urinate, especially at night
  • Pain with urination
  • Blood in the urine.

Causes of prostate enlargement

The real cause of prostate enlargement is not known. Factors such as aging and changes in the cells of the testicles might play a major role in the enlargement of the prostate.

If the testicles are taken out from the man with BPH, the enlarged prostate begins to shrink in size.

Diagnosis & Tests

Your doctor might ask questions such as about your medical history and ask you to do a digital rectal exam the see the prostate gland.

Others tests you may have to undergo are listed below:

  • Urine flow rate
  •     To check the amount of urine left in the bladder, you have to do post-void residual urine test after you urinate
  • Pressure-flow tests to check the pressure in the bladder as you urinate
  • Urine culture to check for infection
  • Urinalysis to check for the presence of blood or infection
  • Prostate-specific antigen (PSA) blood test to screen for prostate cancer
  • Cystoscopy

Treatment & management

Once you are diagnosed with benign prostatic hyperplasia, your health keeper may not recommend immediate treatment if symptoms are mild. For severe symptoms both medical as well as surgical treatments are available.

Self-care for mild symptoms:

  • Avoid alcohol and caffeine.
  • Do not consume a lot of fluid all at once.
  • Urinate when you first get the urge to urinate. Also, go to the bathroom on a scheduled time.
  • Avoid taking over the counter sinus and cold medicines that have decongestants or antihistamines. These drugs can worsen the symptoms.
  • Keep warm and do exercise regularly.
  • Learn and perform Kegel exercises.
  • Reduce stress.

Medical treatment

Several types of medications have been recommended for treating prostate enlargement. Sometimes, men with severe symptoms need treatment with a combination of given medications:

  • Alpha-blockers, such as prazosin (Minipress), terazosin (Hytrin), or doxazosin (Cardura), relax the muscles in the prostate and may relieve symptoms. Recent alpha blockers, such as tamsulosin (Flomax), silodosin (Rapaflo), and alfuzosin (Uroxatral), are more commonly recommended since they have fewer side effects.
  • Drugs such as 5-alpha reductase inhibitors, including finasteride (Proscar) or dutasteride (Avodart) can lead to shrinkage of the prostate.
  • The phosphodiesterase-5 inhibitor tadalafil has also been recommended for the treatment of BPH.

Surgical treatment

Various surgeries are available to treat enlarged prostate:

  •  A common operation for enlarging prostate is transurethral resection of the prostate (TURP).
  • A less common surgery called transurethral incision of the prostate (TUIP).
  • Latest treatments include transurethral microwave thermotherapy (TUMT), interstitial laser coagulation (ILC), and transurethral needle ablation of the prostate (TUNA).
  • Another popular new treatment is photo-vaporization of the prostate (PVP).

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risks of sleepwalking in children


What is sleepwalking?

Sleepwalking episodes occur during deep sleep. In this, the child might get out of bed and start walking as he does when awake, but will not respond to anything happening around.

It is quite common among kids, nearly 7-15% of kids sleepwalk, and it is not usually a sign of anything serious psychologically or emotionally.

Children who fall under the age of 4-12 years are more likely to sleepwalk; both girls, as well as boys, sleepwalk.

When it happens?

It usually happens in the first few hours of the night. During sleepwalk episodes, the child’s mind is asleep but his body is awake.

Signs of sleepwalking

Here are the signs that tell your kid is sleepwalking.

  • Move about in his/her bed
  •   Sleep talking
  • Try to make a conversation, which doesn’t make any sense
  • Get out of bed and walk around the whole house
  • Perform certain tasks, such as getting dressed or setting the table
  • Open eyes, with a glassy stare
  • Get upset but forget it in the morning
  • Go out of the house and wander around outside.

Occurrence of sleepwalking

Sleepwalking usually occurs once or twice a month or for a couple of times each night.

It follows in some families and can happen along with sleep talking and nightmares.

Causes of sleepwalking

Usually, it is associated with age and development, but some things can increase the occurrence of sleepwalking:

Treatment & management

As such there is no medication required to treat sleepwalking, usually, children grow out of it as teenagers.

Here are few tips to manage this condition:

Risks of sleepwalking

In most of the cases, sleepwalkers have mild symptoms such as simply sit up in bed or start speaking while asleep. But people who actually get up from their bed and walk around during a deep sleep can find themselves in trouble. Sleepwalkers are known to leave their homes and walk outside on the roads, while some have even tried to drive while sleeping. To reduce the risk, it is essential to create a safe sleep environment. Sharp objects should be away from the bed area.


7 signs you’re having iron deficiency


Iron is a mineral, which is essential for health and well-being. In the absence of this mineral, most of the functions of the body would malfunction.

The major role that iron plays in the body is to carry oxygen in the blood to all the cells in the body. It is an important component of hemoglobin, the protein found in red blood cells that help in carrying oxygen from the lungs and transports it to all the parts of the body.

Iron deficiency means your body loses the capacity to produce enough oxygen-carrying red blood cells. Iron deficiency can also result to anemia, which means having too little hemoglobin.

Insufficient iron levels can create chaos all over the body. Given below are seven signs of iron deficiency.

  1. Hair loss

When iron deficiency develops into anemia, can lead to hair loss. In this condition hair follicles do not get enough oxygen, they go into a resting stage, and hair falls out. If you notice excessive hair loss and it is not growing back, this may be because of iron deficiency.

  1. Extreme fatigue and exhaustion

One of the most common signs of iron deficiency is experiencing extreme fatigue and exhaustion. This happens because your body is having trouble to carry oxygen to your cells so it’s exhausting your energy levels.

People with iron deficiency often feel weak, sluggish, and unable to concentrate.

  1. Frequent infections

Iron has a major role in keeping the immune system healthy, so lower levels of the mineral mean you are more susceptible to infections. Red blood cells carry oxygen to the spleen, which is a place where infections can be scraped out.

Red blood cells also transport oxygen to the lymph nodes that is the house of infection-combating white blood cells. When there is an iron deficiency, the white blood cells aren’t being produced as well as they aren’t strong because they’re not getting enough oxygen.

  1. Pale complexion

Having pale skin is often linked with being unwell, and there’s a good reason behind it. Hemoglobin causes the skin to have rosy color, so the lack of hemoglobin causes the skin to become lighter.

Red blood cells with low levels of iron become smaller and paler in the center so makes skin to look paler.

  1. Swollen tongue

Lack of oxygen supply can also result in muscles to enlarge and become painful. It occurs in all the muscles, but the tongue is only you can see. People with iron deficiency usually have cracks on the side of the mouth.

  1. Restless legs syndrome

Some people who have iron deficiency develop restless legs syndrome, which is a disorder that makes you have a strong urge to move your legs. This urge often sparks with an unpleasant, crawling sensation in the legs that can cause difficulty while sleeping.

  1. Pica

In this condition, people who are having iron deficiency may develop cravings for non-food substances, including dirt, chalk, or clay.


cost-effective analysis for disaster medical services



Cost-effective analysis for disaster medical services

The cost effectiveness of emergency medical services (EMS) is extraordinarily essential for pre-health center life-saving. Each 2nd plays an essential position in emergent instances. Therefore, the EMS community has to be carefully designed to offer well timed and dependable offerings.

It specializes in enhancing the classical ambulance deployment method to optimize the distribution of first-resource. We refine the double insurance version with a brand new goal function that minimizes the anticipated price for not on time emergencies plus the operational fee for EMS.

EMS operators can use this delicate model to analyze the price-effectiveness of the emergency network, as established in a real-global EMS deployment case study. Several adjustments are made to adapt the traditional ant colony algorithm to resolve our problem.

In concludes with an optimized and price-powerful plan for ambulance deployment in the downtown location of some area.

After optimization, the goal price is reduced with the aid of about 11% each 12 months and 10% fewer emergency calls are neglected or behind schedule. In addition, we use our modified model to test eventualities with comfy restriction of resources.

Potential development of future cost effective emergency medical service (EMS) network is determined. It turns out that growing the wide variety of first-resource stations from 35 (modern range of stations) to 50 and including 10 cars will obtain a shocking 49% value saving whilst retaining a pleasant provider stage.


What is narcolepsy?

Narcolepsy is a life-long sleep disorder characterized by excessive sleepiness, hallucinations, sleep paralysis, and in some cases, it brings along episodes of cataplexy, which is a partial or complete loss of muscle control, often stimulated by a strong emotion, including laughter.

People who have narcolepsy usually experience excessive sleepiness during day time and uncontrollable sessions of falling asleep in the daytime. These sudden sleep attacks may take place during any type of activity of the day.

Causes of narcolepsy

The episodes of narcolepsy with cataplexy occur because of the loss of a chemical in the brain called hypocretin, which usually acts on the altering systems in the brain and helps us in staying awake as well as regulate sleep wake cycles. In this condition, the group of cells that produce hypocretin – found in a region called the hypothalamus is partially or completely damaged. In the absence of hypocretin, the person has difficulty in staying awake, and also faces disruptions in the normal sleep wake cycles.

Signs & Symptoms

Symptoms of narcolepsy are as follow:

  • Excess daytime sleepiness (EDS)
  • Cataplexy, it is a condition when a person experiences a sudden loss of muscle tone which results in feelings of weakness and inability to control voluntary muscle.
  • Hallucinations
  • Sleep paralysis

How is narcolepsy diagnosed?

It is diagnosed by a physical exam, going through medical history, as well as conducting sleep tests.

Two tests that are important for confirming a person is having narcolepsy are the polysomnogram (PSG) and the multiple sleep latency tests (MSLT).

Treatment & management

  • Although there is no cure for narcolepsy, a combination of medications and behavioral treatments can enhance symptoms for people to lead normal lives.
  • Sleepiness can be treated with amphetamine – like stimulants, whereas the symptoms of abnormal REM sleep are cured with antidepressant drugs.
  • Changing lifestyle such as avoiding alcohol, caffeine, nicotine, and heavy meals, scheduling daytime naps, regulating sleep schedules, daily exercise, and meal schedule could also help in improving symptoms.


Best times to drink water during the day!

Well, we all are aware of this fact that one should drink at least eight glasses of water per day to keep the body to function properly. However, drinking water at the ideal time is also as important as having enough water for the properly functioning body.

The most essential thing is to drink clean, pure water to keep your body running smoothly.

Find out the right times of drinking water.

  • After you wake up

Drink at least one glass of water after you wake up every morning. Your body is like a machine, think about starting your car engine even waiting for the engine to warm-up. That’s a useless waiting to take place.

Same for our body, water helps in activating our internal organs. It helps in removing any toxins before the first meal of the day.

  • Before a meal

Have one glass of water at least 30 minutes before eating to enhance digestion. Keep this in mind that do not drink just after or before a meal as the water can dilute the digestive juices.

Drink water at least an hour after your meal to allow your body to absorb the nutrients.

  • Before bathing

Drink one glass of water before you take your shower, it will help in lowering your blood pressure.

  • Before going to bed

Drink one glass of water an hour before you go to bed to make up for any fluid loss that can happen during the night.

  • When you feel hungry

If you feel hungry between your meals, take a glass of drinking water to check if you’re dehydrated. Because people usually think they are hungry when in reality they are just thirsty.

Drinking water rather than munching on snacks would help you to keep your calorie count.

  • When you are tired

If you are tired and want to take a small nap but can’t take, drink a glass or two glass of water to stay awake.

Why early diagnosis of arthritis is important?

According to experts, early and accurate diagnosis results in appropriate treatment.

Often, early symptoms of arthritis can be confusing. In most of the cases people facing joint pain for the first time ignore the underlying cause, including arthritis.

The first thing comes to their mind about joint pain either twisting the joint in the wrong way or some kind of injury. Mostly, people give time to the pain to get cure on its own, and later they try counter remedies to get rid of the pain.

They keep delaying in making an appointment with the doctor until the things get worse. It cannot be disregarded that how essential it is to visit a doctor sooner rather than later.

Seeing which arthritis symptoms you should consult a doctor?

As per the experts, one should make an appointment as soon as you have any of the following symptoms, which could last from three days or more, or experience several episodes of joint symptoms in a month. These are the warning symptoms of arthritis, such as swelling, stiffness, joint pain, difficulty in moving joint, warmth, and redness. Such signs and symptoms should not be ignored and one must consult a doctor as soon as possible.

If an individual experience early symptoms, self-treatment is highly prohibited until the cause is confirmed. The reason is that sometimes arthritis could be a symptom of a more serious problem, such as rheumatoid arthritis, lupus, infection or malignancy. An early and accurate diagnosis makes the way to proper treatment.

In some cases, people may have more than one condition for the same symptoms, including rheumatoid arthritis and fibromyalgia.

Treatment & Management

Listed, below are some ways to treat arthritis.

  • Lose weight: Extra weight acts as a big pressure on the joints, lead to inflammation in the knees, and lead to arthritis. To reduce the chance of suffering from arthritis, one should lose extra weight.
  • Exercise: regular exercise should be done to relax your muscles and joints.
  • Include turmeric in your diet: Turmeric is extensively used in the Indian cuisine and is known as the best natural remedies for arthritis, as it has curcumin, which is effective against arthritis.
  • Medication: Reduce and relax your stress with medication, it is the best way to cope with arthritis. Medication, include NSAIDs and DMARDs (disease modifying anti-rheumatic drugs).